- Describe the various pleura and the significance of their different sensory innervations.
- Diagram the basic anatomy of the lung, being able to demonstrate features found at the hilar, lobar, and segmental level.
- Demonstrate the lymphatic drainage of the lungs and differentiate the right vs left side.
- Review the anatomy of the lungs, airways, and vasculature.
- Explain the role of diaphragm and intercostal muscles in breathing mechanics.
- Diagram the normal blood flow through the heart.
- Differentiate atrial and ventricular anatomy
- Describe the anatomical relationship of the pleural and pericardial cavities.
- Describe the anatomical relationship of the heart to adjacent thoracic structures.
- Describe the foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus and changes that occur at birth.
- Distinguish the anatomical features of each cardiac chamber and valve.
- Diagram the normal coronary artery and venous distribution pattern, including types of dominance patterns.
- Describe the cardiac conduction system and its blood supply.
- Review the neural input to the heart.
- Recognize the origin of heart sounds
- Describe the mechanical forces that control lung volume and chest wall.
- Differentiate mechanisms of airway obstruction.
- Identify methods for measuring pulmonary function.
- Describe the pathogenesis of primary pulmonary hypertension
- Identify cardiovascular consequences of pulmonary hypertension.
- Differentiate primary pulmonary hypertension from secondary pulmonary hypertension.
- Delineate the etiologies explain the pathogenesis of acute cardiogenic shock.
- Recognize common clinical presentations and treatment regimens for acute cardiogenic shock.
- Apply principles of cardiac physiology to recognize the value of cardiac catheterization (Swan-Ganz catheterization).
- Recognize how the basic interpretation of cardiac pressures can inform the clinical scenario.
- Regulation of Cardiac Output
|Regulation of Cardiac Output
- Illustrate in detail the changes in left ventricular pressure, aortic pressure, and left atrial pressure during one cardiac cycle (Wigger’s Diagram).
- Diagram the relationships between venous and arterial pressure
- Diagram the venous return curve, cardiac function curve, vascular function curve, and pressure-volume loops.
- Describe how changes in contractility, venous pressure, arterial pressure, compliance, sympathetic activity, blood volume, and peripheral resistance affect the cardiac function curve, vascular function curve, and pressure-volume loop.
- Analyze the effect of complex changes such as exercise to overall cardiac function.
|Alveolar Ventilation and Gas Transport
- Differentiate minute ventilation from alveolar ventilation.
- Describe the relationship between PCO2 and alveolar ventilation.
- xplain the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve.
- Differentiate the concepts of oxygen tension, hemoglobin saturation, oxygen content, and oxygen delivery
- Identify factors that influence venous PO2 and venous oxygen saturation.
- Describe the P50 for hemoglobin, and list factors that shift the oxy-hemoglobin dissociation curve left and right.
- Describe mechanisms of arterial hypoxemia.
- Develop a working understanding of the alveolar gas equation, describing the A-a gradient for oxygen.
- Differentiate conditions associated with normal A-a gradient for oxygen from those with widened A-a gradient for oxygen.
- Identify consequences of inadequate oxygen delivery to tissue.
- Describe the essential steps in ethical human research
- Describe the informed consent and what it means.
- Describe the process of obtaining informed consent.
- Describe the ABCDE approach to chest X-ray interpretation, using this approach to identify intrathoracic structures on the X-ray.
- Describe the physiologic basis of ECG.
- Describe what the different ECG waves represent.
- Explain the key features of a normal ECG, including P wave morphology, PR interval, QRS axis, QRS duration, and QT interval.
- Review examples of how pathology can result in ECG abnormalities, specifically left atrial enlargement, heart block, right bundle branch block, and ST-segment elevation MI.
|Echocardiograph (ECHO) and Coronary Angiography
- Describe the physiologic basis of ECHO.
- Identify major structures of ECHO views.
- Cite examples of major abnormalities that can be detected by ECHO.
- Explain the physiologic basis of cardiac catheterization and coronary angiography.