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Renal, Fluids, and Electrolytes (RFE): Week 5

Resources for the RFE course

Boards and Beyond

List of Boards and Beyond Videos along with length

Boards and Beyond does not allow direct linking to specific videos. Links will go to the topic page where you can scroll to the video.

This Week: 1 hour 21 minutes

Sub-Category 04: Diseases of the Nephron

  • Glomerulonephritis Principles - 15 min
  • Nephritic Syndrome - 22 min
  • Nephrotic Syndrome - 18 min
  • MPGN - 7 min
  • RPGN - 10 min
  • Hematuria - 9 min

Weekly Objectives

By the end of the week, students will be able to:
Mechanisms of Immunologic Glomerular Injury

  1. Examine the basic Mechanisms of Immunologic Glomerular Injury:
    a. Anti-Glomerular basement membrane disease
        i. Autoimmune features
        ii. Mediators of injury
    b. Anti-epithelial cell disease
        i. Heymann nephritis as a model for human membranous glomerulonephritis
        ii. Autoimmune features
        iii. Mediators of injury
        iv. Review the role of phospholipase A2 receptor antibody in the pathogenesis of Membranous Nephropathy
    c. Immune complex-induced disease
        i. Deposition of immune complexes from the circulation
           a) Properties of immune complexes
           b) Sites of deposition and consequences
           c) Mediators of injury
        ii. In-situ immune complex formation
           a) Membranous glomerulonephritis
           b) Autoimmune features involved in perpetuation of glomerular injuries
           c) Circulating antibody binding to planted or entrapped antigens
    d. Auto-antibodies capable of activating leukocytes
        i. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies
        ii. Mechanisms of injury

Mediators of Glomerular Injury

  1. Discuss cellular mediators including:
    a. Inflammatory cells: Neutrophils, Monocytes
    b. Molecular mediators
        i. Complement components
        ii. Cytokines: IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha
        iii. Reactive Oxygen Species
        iv. Growth factors: PDGF, FGF, TGF-beta

Glomerular Responses to Injury

  1. Analyze the glomerular responses to injury including:
    a. Inflammatory exudate
    b. Intrinsic cell proliferation
    c. Crescent formation
    d. Non-inflammatory lesions

Nephrotic Syndrome

  1. Review the definition and clinical presentation of nephrotic syndrome
  2. Analyze the alterations in glomerular filtration barrier leading to proteinuria
  3. Discuss the mechanisms causing sodium retention
    a. Primary renal sodium retention
    b. Starling forces
  4. Examine the mechanisms underlying hypoalbuminemia
  5. Discuss the complications of Nephrotic syndrome
    a. Hyperlipidemia
    b. Hypercoagulable state